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Politics as War: The Human Rights Impact and Causes of Post-Election Violence in Rivers State, Nigeria

Politics as War

The Human Rights Impact and Causes of Post-Election Violence in Rivers State, Nigeria

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Summary

Methodology

Recommendations

To the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
To the Joint Task Force
To the Rivers State Government
To The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)
To the Nigerian Police
To Nigeria’s Foreign Partners

Background: Root Causes of Violence in Rivers State

Politics and Violence in Rivers State

The 2003 Elections and the Rise of Gang Violence in Rivers State
2003-2007: Proliferation of Gangs and Violence
The 2007 Polls and Their Aftermath: History Repeats Itself

“Militants,” Cults, and Gangs in Rivers State
Immediate Causes of the July and August 2007 Violence in Rivers State

The Rising Power of Soboma George
Competition for Access to Illicit Government Patronage

The Human Rights Impact of Post-Election Gang Violence in Rivers State

The Human Rights Impact of the Joint Task Force Intervention in Rivers State

Looking Forward: Government Inaction and the Risk of Further Violence

Conclusion

Annex: Partial Overview of Cults, Gangs, and “Militant Groups” in Rivers State

Supreme Vikings Confraternity (or “Vikings”)
Icelanders/Niger Delta Vigilante
Deewell
Deebam
Outlaws
Niger Delta People’s Volunteer Force (NDPVF)
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)

Acknowledgments

 

March 2008 Volume 20, No. 3(A)