Box 1: Who is Who?
armed groups mentioned in this report
Union of Congolese Patriots (Union des Patriots
is an armed group in Ituri promoting the interests of the ethnic Hema. It took
control of Bunia in August 2002 with the help of Uganda. Soon after the UPC
received support from Rwanda. In late 2003 the UPC split into two factions,
one under Kisembo Bahemuka (known as UPC-K) and the other under Thomas Lubanga
(known as UPC-L). The Lubanga faction was militarily stronger, led by Commander
Bosco Taganda in the absence of Thomas Lubanga detained in Kinshasa. Despite
series allegations of human rights abuses carried out by Commander Bosco
Taganda, he was offered a position as a general in the new Congolese army, the
FARDC (Forces Armées du la République Démocractique du Congo), in
January 2005. To date he has refused to take up his post.
Nationalist and Integrationist Front (Front
des Nationalistes et Intégrationnistes, FNI)
is an armed group in Ituri promoting the interests of the ethnic Lendu.
Established in late 2002 it temporarily integrated the Lendu militia, known as
the FNI, together with the Ngiti milita (Lendu from the south) known as the FRPI.
The two branches split into separate armed groups in 2004 after leadership
wrangles. The FNI is supported by Uganda. While Ugandan forces were in Congo in 2003 they carried out joint military operations with the FNI. In 2002 and 2003,
the FNI also benefited from military training and support from a national rebel
group, the RCD-ML. One of their senior commanders, Gode Sukpa, was integrated
into the FARDC as a general in January 2005. No checks were carried out as to
his suitability for the role.
Armed Forces of Congo (Forces Armées du Peuple Congolais, FAPC)
Jérôme Kakwavu Bukande.
armed group based in northeastern Congo (Aru and Ariwara), established in March
2003 with the support of Uganda. Commander Jérôme switched alliances several
times since 1998 moving from the RCD-ML, to the UPC before launching his own
armed group. In May 2003 a mutiny attempt to overthrow Commander Jérôme was
brutally put down with Ugandan support. Despite serious allegations of war
crimes carried out on the order of Commander Jérôme, he was integrated into the
new Congolese army, the FARDC, as a general in January 2005.
Northeastern Congo has a host of other armed groups mentioned in passing in this report.
They include the following:
Party for Unity and Safeguarding of the Integrity of Congo (Parti pour lunité et la sauvegarde de lintégrité du Congo, PUSIC),
predominantly made up of ethnic Hema from the south.
Patriotic Force of Resistance in Ituri (Force de Résistance Patriotique
dIturi, FRPI), made up of ethnic Ngiti (Lendu from the south) who
operate in areas south of Bunia.
Congolese Rally for Democracy National (Rassemblement
Congolais pour la Démocratie - National, RCD-National), a rebel
group led by Roger Lumbala based in the Isiro and Watsa areas to the north.
Now integrated into the Congolese transitional government.
Congolese Rally for Democracy Liberation Movement (Rassemblement
Congolais pour la Démocratie Mouvement de Libération, RCD-ML), a
rebel group led by Mbusa Nyamwisi based out of Beni in North Kivu. Its armed
wing was called the Congolese Peoples Army (Armée du Peuple Congolaise,
APC). This movement was integrated into the Congolese transitional