HUMAN RIGHTS hrw.orgDefending Human Rights Worldwide

Human Rights News FrenchSpanishRussianKoreanArabicHebrewspacer
RSSPortugueseGermanChinesePersianMore Languagesspacer

Egypt: Court Prohibits Withholding Documents from Baha段s

Government Should Implement Discrimination Decision Without Delay

(Cairo, January 30, 2008) Human Rights Watch and the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) welcomed a January 29 court ruling that struck down the government痴 policy of denying essential identity documents and access to basic services to citizens whose religion is not recognized by the state.

" The government should stop using public order and Sharia pretexts to justify official bigotry. Baha段 Egyptians should not have been forced to go to court to end this abusive behavior. "
Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director of Human Rights Watch
The Cairo Court of Administrative Justice granted the request of Baha段 Egyptians to obtain birth certificates and identity cards without indicating any religious affiliation. The decision overturned the government痴 policy of forcing Baha段 Egyptians to choose one of the three state-recognized religions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism as a prerequisite for obtaining identification documents.  
典his ruling remedies an official discriminatory policy based solely on religious belief, said Hossam Bahgat, director of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights. 展e urge the government to implement the decision without delay, and not to appeal this clear verdict of the court.  
For the last eight years, the Civil Status Department of the Ministry of Interior has refused to issue identity documents to any citizen who does not adhere to one of the three 塗eavenly religions. These documents are essential to obtain education and employment, register births, immunize children, and conduct basic transactions such as opening a bank account, getting a driver痴 license, or collecting a pension.  
A previous ruling by the Supreme Administrative Court in December 2006 had upheld the state policy of refusing to recognize the religious affiliation of Baha段s in official documents, arguing that such recognition would violate public order and Sharia (Islamic law) requirements. This ruling prompted Baha段 Egyptians to file two new lawsuits the subject of yesterday痴 ruling requesting documents that do not list any religious affiliation. The new cases, filed by EIPR lawyers, argued that forcing Baha段s to identify falsely as Muslim or Christian violated their rights to freedom of religion, privacy, and equality.  
典he government should stop using public order and Sharia pretexts to justify official bigotry, said Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director of Human Rights Watch. 釘aha段 Egyptians should not have been forced to go to court to end this abusive behavior.  
In November 2007, Human Rights Watch and the EIPR issued a joint report, 撤rohibited Identities: State Interference with Religious Freedom, documenting the Ministry of Interior痴 policy of denying mandatory identity documents to Baha段s as well as citizens who convert from Islam to Christianity. The report found that this policy was arbitrary and not based on any Egyptian law. Rather, the government selectively used Sharia to deny some citizens their right, guaranteed under Egyptian and international human rights law, to exercise religious freedom without discrimination or penalty.  
The discrimination became particularly acute and systematic when the government, beginning in 1995, insisted that all persons needing to acquire or replace such documents had to acquire computer-generated ones from the central Civil Registry Office in the Ministry of Interior. Officials have said that in the near future, perhaps early this year, all Egyptians will have to acquire computerized IDs, even if they now possess valid paper ones.  
The court痴 January 29 judgment resulted from two lawsuits. The first case (no. 18354/58) involved 15-year-old twins, Imad and Nancy Ra置f Hindi, who have been unable since 2004 to obtain computer-generated birth certificates unless they convert to Islam or Christianity. Their father had obtained birth certificates for them when they were first born in 1993 recognizing their Baha段 religious affiliation, but new certificates carrying an individual 渡ational number (raqam qawmi) are mandatory; Baha段 children are unable to enroll in public schools without them.  
The second case (no. 12780/61) was filed in February 2007 on behalf of Hosni Hussein Abd al-Massih, born in 1989, who was suspended from the Suez Canal University痴 Higher Institute of Social Work because he could not obtain an identity card recognizing his Baha'i faith. Baha'i students in post-secondary education have faced suspension or expulsion because of their inability to obtain ID cards or military service postponement papers.  
Both rulings can be appealed to the Supreme Administrative Court.  


Suggest This Page to a Friend
Your Email (required)
Your Friend's Name
Friend's Email (required)
Email addresses are not stored.
Your Message

Enter Security Code
(case sensitive)

Please read the HRW Privacy Policy

HRW Logo Contribute to Human Rights Watch

Home | About Us | News Releases | Publications | Info by Country | Global Issues | Campaigns | Community | Bookstore | Film Festival | Search | Site Map | Contact Us | Press Contacts | Privacy Policy

ゥ Copyright 2006, Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA